Image editing

My design Works.. A short Abstract of What i’ve done


This PDF contains the designs of CoreLabs. CoreLabs is celebrating the 2nd anniversary in this July.
These are the  milestones of CoreLabs :
(Designed for following events)
1. Dhruvam ’09 & ’10.(Intra-level Tech Fest at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham)
2. FOSSTER ’10 (National Level FOSS conference at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham).
3. Futsal ’10 (Intra-level Football championship at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham)
4. GYAN ’09 (Quiz competition conducted by FOSS club)
5. InCTF ’12 (National Level Capture the Flag Hacking Contest organized by Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham)

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Basic Photoshop tips and tricks


Photoshop tips and trickBasic Photoshop tips and tricks: This document file will lead you to adopt in the world of image editing. Most of the peoples who have drawing are not aware of the Photoshop software. There are many people’s in our society who have everything- laptops, digital camera etc.. But they will not use it for learning purpose. They takes photo through thier digital camera and they mayn’t be able to do a simple task like- converting landscape to portrait or to convert a color photo to black n white. It will be qumelative, if one of nieghbours has approached you with his/her digital camera, with a request to edit the images in the memory card of hi camera, when you are an engineer or a high School student. So think, take a quick decision and adapt yourself to technical world.

Image editing using Photoshop

Seshagiri Prabhu N, U4CSE08050, S3 CS A, COMPUTER SCEINCE ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT: Millions of people around the world have chosen image editing as their profession. Image editing has a wide range of applications in all categories.  Moreover than that, it is the most basic thing that every computer science engineer should know. If you have taken an image using your digital camera and it will be very shameful if you don’t know to convert a landscape image to portrait or to convert an image to black n white after being a computer science engineer. So it’s the time to know some basic stuff about image editing.

There are many software’s available in the market, the most popular among them is Photoshop. But it is true that even paint have also it own importance. The first usage of Photoshop in Hollywood movie was in star war. The movie was released in 1990, same year in which the movie was released. The first version was photoshop-1 and the latest was Photoshop-11. Photoshop is brilliant at is its original purpose-special effects. Using Photoshop, even the blandest image can be given a new lease on life. It doesn’t end there, though. With its extremely powerful image-editing tools, Photoshop can be used to correct even the most disastrous flaws in pictures from red eyes in photographs to undesirable smears of color.

The images taken from a digital camera is called raw image. The adobe company has released almost all the image editing software and they are the most popular in the global level. Images can be saved in different formats. There are many formats in which an image can be saved. The most popular among them is JPEG. JPEG format gives a better quality when compared to the space it utilizes.  Adobe Bridge is software which can be used to save images in various formats.

Keywords

JPEG, PSD, MB, RAW, TIFF, DNG,  RGB, CMYK, channels, layers, white balance, tonal range, contrast, color saturation, and sharpening, levels n curves, red eye tool, heal tool, Clarity, Vibrance, and Saturation controls, HSL.

INTRODUCTION

Image editing is not only equal to mastering the software, but also equal to the some facts which is controlled by brain signals.  The editor should have the color essence. That means to make best color combinations which will be liked not only by him but also by other.  Photoshop offers a variety of choices for those who don’t have much color essence in them. Images are of to type’s vector and scalar. The output image of Photoshop is a scalar image. There is software released by Adobe called Illustrator which gives a vector image.

What are the vector and scalar images?

The Quality of images is scaled using resolution. Common resolution unit is dpi (dots per inch), which means that number of particles which can be filled in an inch space of the image. Higher the resolution higher the quality of the image.  Vector images have infinite resolution. Hence it has the best quality. The main difference between vector and scalar image is vector image can be zoomed into any extend and the quality remains the best. Well, in the case of the scalar images, there quality will be lost, when it is zoomed above 100%. So scaling of images is a difficult task faced during the development of a scalar image. But scalar image has its own property, because all the raw images taken from a digital camera are scalar images. There isn’t any digital device, which can photograph a vector image. Vector images work on the principle of mathematical equations. Hence there quality remains same when they are zoomed into an extensive scale. Whereas the quality of the scalar image can be increased by increasing the resolution. And there is n another way to enlarge an image by maintaining the constant proportions between the width and the height of the image. Using this principle you can enlarge the image to a certain extend without losing the quality.

Default saving format-PSD

The default file saving format in Photoshop is PSD, the specialty of this format is it can save all the histories and layers of the image we did. But the main difference between PSD and other file formats are the size difference. PSD images are huge. Suppose an image of A3 size is saved in JPEG and in PSD. JPEG image size will be less than 5 MB, but PSD image will reserve 45 MB of Hard disk space. But the maximum quality is provided only by PSD images.

Camera Raw

The Photoshop Raw format (.raw) is a file format for transferring images between applications and computer platforms. Don’t confuse Photoshop raw with camera raw file formats. A camera raw file contains unprocessed, uncompressed grayscale picture data from a digital camera’s image sensor, along with information about how the image was captured (metadata). Photoshop Camera Raw software interprets the camera raw file, using information about the camera and the image’s metadata to construct and process a color image.

Think of a camera raw file as your photo negative. You can reprocess the file at any time, achieving the results that you want by making adjustments for white balance, tonal range, contrast, color saturation, and sharpening. When you adjust a camera raw image, the original camera raw data is preserved. Adjustments are stored as metadata in an accompanying sidecar file, in a database, or in the file itself (in the case of DNG format).

When you shoot JPEG files with your camera, the camera automatically processes the JPEG file to enhance and compress the image. You generally have little control over how this processing occurs. Shooting camera raw images with your camera gives you greater control than shooting JPEG images, because camera raw does not lock you into processing done by your camera. You can still edit JPEG and TIFF images in Camera Raw, but you will be editing pixels that were already processed by the camera. Camera raw files always contain the original, unprocessed pixels from the camera. To shoot camera raw images, you must set your camera to save files in its own camera raw file format.

COLOR MODE

RGB

RGB images use three colors, or channels, to reproduce colors on-screen. In 8‑bits-per-channel images, the three channels translate to 24 (8 bits x 3 channels) bits of color information per pixel. With 24‑bit images, the three channels can reproduce up to 16.7 million colors per pixel. With 48‑bit (16‑bits-per-channel) and 96‑bit (32‑bits-per-channel) images, even more colors can be reproduced per pixel. In addition to being the default mode for new Photoshop images, the RGB model is used by computer monitors to display colors. This means that when working in color modes other than RGB, such as CMYK, Photoshop converts the CMYK image to RGB for display on-screen.

BASIC EDITING

Simple Cropping

Photoshop offers a more powerful option to crop images by way of the Crop Tool. Click on the Crop Tool to activate it and select the region of the image you wish to retain. Don’t try too hard to align it perfectly, because you can easily move the selection area later on. Once a rectangle is formed on the image, the selected area will appear lighter, and bordered Using the Crop Tool by a dashed line that appears like it is moving. You will find tiny squares called selection handles, which can be used to change the area of selection. If you move the mouse out of the selection, you will see that the pointer changes to a two-sided arrow. You can now rotate the selection as desired. After rotating it to include the desired parts, you can fine tune it by using the handles again. Once you are sure of the selection, just press Enter or use Image > Crop.

Before Cropping                                                                       After cropping

Adjusting Brightness and Contrast

If an image has been shot in low light, it can be made to look brighter by increasing the brightness level. Generally, when brightness is increased, the image appears to be low on contrast, that is, the colors don’t appear vivid or distinct there appears to be a whitish tinge. In such cases, the images can be made to look richer by increasing the contrast level. Contrast can be increased irrespective of the brightness levels, until the point where distortion starts to appear. This setting again is subjective, and just how much you increase contrast is your decision, based on trial and error. As a rule of thumb, keep the contrast within 5 units of the brightness. But if going beyond this range makes your image look

Better, just go ahead!

Before Adjustments                                                                                            after Adjustments

Steps involved

Converting a Color image into black n white

There are some images which may not seem good when they are in color (RGB format). In the olden days peoples used to take black n white pictures. That trend still exists in the market. Most of the news papers available in the market are still using black n white picture even in the front page of their newspaper. Photoshop offers an easier way to make an image black n white. Open the picture go to image > adjustments > black n white.

Color photo                                                                                                           Black n white

Steps involved

Color correct using the eyedroppers

You can use the eyedroppers in the Levels or Curves adjustment to correct a color cast such as an unwanted tint from an excess of color (red, green, blue, or cyan, magenta, yellow). It’s easier to color-balance an image by first identifying an area that you want to be neutral and then removing the color cast from that area. Depending on the image, you can use one or all three of the eyedroppers. The eyedroppers work best on an image with easily identified neutrals.

Note: The Set Gray Point Eyedropper tool  is used primarily for color correction and is unavailable when you work with grayscale images.

For the best results, don’t use the eyedroppers in images that require a large adjustment to map a pixel to the maximum highlight or minimum shadow values.

Important: Using the eyedroppers undoes any previous adjustment you made in Levels or Curves. If you plan to use the eyedroppers, it’s best to use them first and then fine-tune your adjustments with the Levels sliders or Curves points.

  1. Identify an area in the image that you want to be neutral gray. For example, a paved road.

Use a color sampler to mark a neutral area so that you can click it with an eyedropper later.

  1. Click the Levels or Curves icon in the Adjustments panel, or choose Layer > New Adjustment Layer, and then choose Levels or Curves.

Note: You can also choose Image > Adjustments, and then choose Level or Curves. You would complete the following steps in either the Level or Curves dialog box. But keep in mind that this method makes direct adjustments to the image layer and discards image information.

  1. In the Adjustments panel, double-click the Set Gray Point tool. In the Adobe Color Picker, verify that the currently selected color has identical R, G, and B values (for example, 128,128,128).
  2. With the Set Gray Point Eyedropper, click the neutral area that you identified in Step 1. This should reset mid tones and remove the color cast from the image.
  3. If necessary, make final adjustments in the Adjustments panel.

If you specified new target colors for an eyedropper, Photoshop asks whether you want to save the new target colors as defaults.

Remove red eye

Red eye is caused by a reflection of the camera flash in the subject’s retina. You’ll see it more often when taking pictures in a darkened room because the subject’s iris is wide open. To avoid red eye, use the camera’s red eye reduction feature. Or, better yet, use a separate flash unit that you can mount on the camera farther away from the camera’s lens.

The Red Eye tool removes red eye in flash photos of people or animals, and white or green reflections in flash photos of animals.

  1. Select the Red Eye tool. (The Red Eye tool is in the same group as the Spot Healing Brush tool. Click the triangle in the lower right portion of a tool to display additional tools.)
  2. Click in the red eye. If you are not satisfied with the result, undo the correction, set one or more of the following options in the options bar, and click the red eye again:

Red Eye Image                                                                                                        After removing red eye

Clarity, Vibrance, and Saturation controls in Camera Raw

You can change the color saturation (vividness or color purity) of all colors by adjusting the Clarity, Vibrance, and Saturation controls on the Basic tab. (To adjust saturation for a specific range of colors, use the controls on the HSL / Grayscale tab.)

Clarity: Adds depth to an image by increasing local contrast, with greatest effect on the midtones. This setting is like a large-radius no sharp mask. When using this setting, it is best to zoom in to 100% or greater. To maximize the effect, increase the setting until you can see halos near the edge details of the image and then reduce the setting slightly.

Vibrance: Adjusts the saturation so that clipping is minimized as colors approach full saturation. This setting changes the saturation of all lower-saturated colors with less effect on the higher-saturated colors. Vibrance also prevents skin tones from becoming oversaturated.

Saturation: Adjusts the saturation of all image colors equally from ‑100 (monochrome) to +100 (double the saturation).

HSL / Grayscale controls in Camera Raw

You can use the controls in the HSL / Grayscale tab to adjust individual color ranges. For example, if a red object looks too vivid and distracting, you can decrease the Reds values in the nested Saturation tab.

The following nested tabs contain controls for adjusting a color component for a specific color range:

Hue: Changes the color. For example, you can change a blue sky (and all other blue objects) from cyan to purple.

Saturation: Changes the color vividness or purity of the color. For example, you can change a blue sky from gray to highly saturated blue.

Luminance: Changes the brightness of the color range. If you select Convert to Grayscale, you see only one nested tab.

Grayscale Mix: Use controls in this tab to specify the contribution of each color range to the grayscale version of the image.

Tone a grayscale image in Camera Raw

Use the controls in the Split Toning tab to color a grayscale image. You can add one color throughout the tonal range, such as a sepia appearance, or create a split tone result, in which a different color is applied to the shadows and the highlights. The extreme shadows and highlights remain black and white.

You can also apply special treatments, such as a cross-processed look, to a color image.

  1. Select a grayscale image. (It can be an image that you converted to grayscale by selecting Convert to Grayscale in the HSL / Grayscale tab.)
  2. In the Split Toning tab, adjust the Hue and Saturation properties for the highlights and shadows. Hue sets the color of the tone; Saturation sets the magnitude of the result.
  3. Adjust the Balance control to balance the influence between the Highlight and Shadow controls. Positive values increase the influence of the Shadow controls; negative values increase the influence of the Highlight controls.

Heal Tool

The Healing Brush tool lets you correct imperfections, causing them to disappear into the surrounding image. Like the cloning tools, you use the Healing Brush tool to paint with sampled pixels from an image or pattern. However, the Healing Brush tool also matches the texture, lighting, transparency, and shading of the sampled pixels to the pixels being healed. As a result, the repaired pixels blend seamlessly into the rest of the image. It can be used to remove the pimples, burned spots and so on…

Before healing                                                                                                         After Healing

Conclusion

Peoples have a misunderstanding that Image editing is a tough task. So they don’t care about those task’s and they will feel it only after looking at the print out of their own image and will finally realize that  “how bad I took my photo?” It may not be your fault, but due to your very old digital camera. So it’s the perfect time to start learning about image editing. Learn image editing, Make yourself and other beautiful.

INDEX

JPEG: JPEG is only available when the image is 8 Bits/Channel (it only supports 8 Bit/Channel).

TIFF: TIFF is a flexible raster (bitmap) image format supported by virtually all paint, image-editing, and page-layout applications.

Bitmap: Technically called raster images-use a rectangular grid of picture elements (pixels) to represent images

Pixel: The pixel dimensions (image size or height and width) of a bitmap image is a measure of the number of pixels along an image’s width and height

Resolution: is the fineness of detail in a bitmap image and is measured in pixels per inch (ppi)

DNG: The Digital Negative (DNG) format is a non-proprietary, publicly documented, and widely supported format for storing raw camera data.

CMYK: Some colors in the RGB, HSB, and Lab color models cannot be printed because they are out-of-gamut and have no equivalents in the CMYK model

Channels: Channels are grayscale images that store different types of information.

Layers: Photoshop layers are like sheets of stacked acetate. You can see through transparent areas of a layer to the layers below. You move a layer to position the content on the layer, like sliding a sheet of acetate in a stack

White balance: Camera Raw applies the white balance setting and changes the Temperature and Tint properties in the Basic tab accordingly. Use these controls to fine-tune the color balance.

Tonal range: The tonal range, such as a sepia appearance, or create a split tone result, in which a different color is applied to the shadows and the highlights.

Color saturation: This adjustment increases the saturation of less-saturated colors more than the colors that are already saturated. Vibrance also prevents skin tones from becoming over saturated.

Sharpening: it is done to sharpen the edges of the image.

Levels n curves: Curves or Levels to adjust the entire tonal range of an image. The Curves adjustment lets you adjust points throughout the tonal range of an image (from shadows to highlights). Levels have only three adjustments (white point, black point, and gamma)

Red eye tool: The Red Eye tool removes red eye in flash photos of people or animals, and white or green reflections in flash photos of animals.

Heal tool: The Healing Brush tool lets you correct imperfections, causing them to disappear into the surrounding image.

Clarity: Adds depth to an image by increasing local contrast, with greatest effect on the midtones.

Vibrance: Adjusts the saturation so that clipping is minimized as colors approach full saturation.

Saturation: Adjusts the saturation of all image colors.

Hue: Changes the color.

Saturation: Changes the color vividness or purity of the color.

Luminance: Changes the brightness of the color range.