ubuntu

Crack Windows-XP Administrator account Password


Computer Lab sessions seems to be the most boring sessions, if it is not utilized properly. I hacked into Windows XP Administrator account using Ubuntu 10.10. Before getting into windows it is important to become a root user in Ubuntu/Linux. Grub (a list shown during system startup to choose the Operating systems installed in the system) can be used to get root shell. Move the cursor to the Linux Distro’s (say Ubuntu 11.10 Natty) option and press ‘e’ (option to edit the grub). At the end of the third line in the new list there will be ro quit splash replace that word by rw init=/bin/bash. This will redirect you to a bash shell of root user. Then press ctrl + x to boot. Prompt with ‘root’ as prefix will appear. This means full access to the system! Now, edit /etc/sudoers
In order to edit /etc/sudoers you have to use visudo editor

Find this line: root ALL=(ALL) (ALL) and just under this line add a line, in which desired User name should be given.
your-username ALL=(ALL) ALLNow reboot system using this command Login in to the system using the given user name and password and you are now the root user of the system. Open a terminal (applications->terminal or use default shortcut: ctrl+alt+t) and install chntpw Рutility to overwrite Windows NT/2000 SAM passwords.Find out the partition in which you have install the windows using any of these commands:

$ sudo fdisk -l
$ sudo parted /dev/sda print

Now, mount the Windows File system(C drive in most of the case) Using this command:

$ sudo umount /dev/sda# /mnt/

#-the respective number of the Windows partition that you found using the command fdisk and parted
/mnt- the directory where you are going to mount. You can give it anywhere you want. I prefer this directory.

Change the directory to Windows partition under the directory mnt, using cd command. Then using your basic Linux skills try to get into the directory Windows/System32/config using cd command.
You are now almost done. Use this command to modify the file SAM – Security Account Manager (is a database present on servers running Windows Server 2003 that stores user accounts and security descriptors for users on the local computer):

$ sudo chntpw SAM

When you use this command you will get this.

* SAM policy limits:
Failed logins before lockout is: 0
Minimum password length : 0
Password history count : 0
| RID -|---------- Username ------------| Admin? |- Lock? --|
| 01f4 | Administrator | ADMIN | dis/lock |
| 03e8 | corelabs | ADMIN | |
| 01f5 | Guest | | *BLANK* |
| 03ee | HomeGroupUser$ | | |
| 03e9 | VUSR_CORELABS-PC | | |
---------------------> SYSKEY CHECK Not Set (not installed, good!)
SAM Account\F : 0 -> off
SECURITY PolSecretEncryptionKey: -1 -> Not Set (OK if this is NT4)
Syskey not installed!

RID : 0500 [01f4]
Username: Administrator
fullname:
comment : Built-in account for administering the computer/domain
homedir :

User is member of 1 groups:
00000220 = Administrators (which has 2 members)

Account bits: 0x0211 =
[X] Disabled | [ ] Homedir req. | [ ] Passwd not req. |
[ ] Temp. duplicate | [X] Normal account | [ ] NMS account |
[ ] Domain trust ac | [ ] Wks trust act. | [ ] Srv trust act |
[X] Pwd don't expir | [ ] Auto lockout | [ ] (unknown 0x08) |
[ ] (unknown 0x10) | [ ] (unknown 0x20) | [ ] (unknown 0x40) |

Failed login count: 0, while max tries is: 0
Total login count: 1

- - - - User Edit Menu:
1 - Clear (blank) user password
2 - Edit (set new) user password (careful with this on XP or Vista)
3 - Promote user (make user an administrator)
4 - Unlock and enable user account [probably locked now]
q - Quit editing user, back to user select
Select: [q]>

Based on your necessity, you can use any of these options [1, 2, 3, 4, q]
Don’t forget to save the file-SAM after changes or else there wont be any results. When you boot to Windows next time you will be able to access Administrative account if you have used options-[1 & 2].

Hacking is fun, so Have fun!!

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lost your grub??


If have lost your grub after installing some other OS or some files have been corrupted in Linux,

here is a solution..

This is only for those who have installed ubuntu upt0 9.04 distro’s

insert any ubuntu live disc not above 9.04  and open live session.

open terminal type “sudo grub”

a new window will come with “grub>” as user.

in That type “root (hd0,”x”)”

where x is the partition number in which u have installed Linux in your PC.

this is to set the primary file system as the root file system of the linux OS.

then type “hd0”

and then restart your system.

How to edit grub menu linux


It be itching to see your screen full of 6 -10 lines, but in your system you might have installed only one or two OS,

so if ur running ubuntu in your system, here is an easy way to edit the grub menu.

Open terminal type “sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst”

then a new window will come in that go to the bottom of that page and there you can see name of the OS and u can remove the unwanted recovery mode, and u can set different name to your OS like My ubuntu etc..

Try out and checkout the difference.

How to make a Custmized Ubuntu live DVD


How-To: Customize your Ubuntu Live CD

Live CD are great, they let you try out a distribution without installing it. They allow you to run your favorite distribution on any computer and on the top of this, they become handy to recover a system.

Ubuntu live CD is already packed up with some pretty nifty software that allow you to do pretty much everything with the Live CD, but still, they might be some software you don’t need that are include with it or, some software you need might be missing.

Another Pro for this is that by customizing your image, you will be able to install

This tutorial will show the steps to follow in order to customize an Ubuntu Live CD to your need by removing some component and adding some others.

During this tutorial, we are going to remaster our Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon 7.10 Live CD with the following spec:

  • remove non english language pack
  • Update the softwares release shiiped in the live CD
  • Enable universe and multiverse repository
  • Include divx, mp3 support, realplayer ….
  • Include ndiswrapper support
  • Add Firefox flash-nonfree plugin, add skype.
  • Add some network troubleshooting tools: traceroute, wireshark, kismet…

The resulting image will be bigger that 800M, so it won’t fit on a CD, but will be fine on a DVD.

1. Preparing the host

First of all, we need to get the current karmic Live CD image and store it let say on ~/Desktop , also, we will need to install an extra piece of software to rebuild our karmic live CD’s squashfs:

$ sudo apt-get install squashfs-tools chroot

Now let’s get started by setting up our working environment. First, we are going to mount the iso under /tmp/livecd:

$ mkdir /tmp/livecd
$ sudo mount -o loop ~/Desktop/ubuntu-9.10-desktop-i386.iso /tmp/livecd

Then create a directory containing our future CD image (cd) in our working directory (~/livecd) and copy all the CD content but casper/filesystem.squashfs in our ~/livecd/cd directory:

$ mkdir ~/livecd
$ mkdir ~/livecd/cd
$ rsync –exclude=/casper/filesystem.squashfs -a /tmp/livecd/ ~/livecd/cd

This copy all but the squashfs file, which is the compressed file containing our live CD filesystem.

Now we need to mount casper/filesystem.squashfs onto a directory called ~/livecd/squashfs in order to copy its content in a directory where we are going to edit our live CD filesystem: ~/livecd/custom

$ mkdir ~/livecd/squashfs
$ mkdir ~/livecd/custom
$ sudo modprobe squashfs
$ sudo mount -t squashfs -o loop /tmp/livecd/casper/filesystem.squashfs ~/livecd/squashfs/
$ sudo cp -a ~/livecd/squashfs/* ~/livecd/custom

And finally, let copy /etc/resolv.conf and /etc/hosts to our ~/livecd/custom/etc so we will be able to access network from within the image we are going to customize (through chroot):

$ sudo cp /etc/resolv.conf /etc/hosts ~/livecd/custom/etc/

2. Getting into our future image:

In order to customize the image, we will chroot into ~/livecd/custom directory, mount some necessary pseudo-filesystem (/proc and /sys). From there, we will be able to customize our Live CD.

$ sudo chroot ~/livecd/custom
# mount -t proc none /proc/
# mount -t sysfs none /sys/
# export HOME=/root

Now we are ready, let’s customize….

How-To: Customize your Ubuntu Live CD — page 2

3. Customizing our future live CD

3.1. Removing packages

First of all, we are going to remove non-english language pack, and in order to free some more space, we are going to remove gnome-games packages.

# apt-get remove –purge gnome-games*
# apt-get remove –purge `dpkg-query -W –showformat=’${Package}\n’ | grep language-pack | egrep -v ‘\-en’`

Mind that you might want to remove some other software. In order to see installed software, you can run the following:

# dpkg-query -W –showformat=’${Package}\n’ | less

3.2. Updating the existing image

Now that we have remove softwares we do not need, we can update our /etc/apt/sources.list in order to enable universe and multiverse repository along with gutsy-updates, gutsy-security and the partner repository so we can install vmware-server.

Open and edit /etc/apt/sources.list

# vim /etc/apt/sources.list

and make it look like:

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu karmic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu
karmic main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu karmic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu
karmic-updates main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu karmic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu
karmic-security main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu karmic partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu
karmic partner

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/openoffice-pkgs/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/openoffice-pkgs/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/compiz/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/compiz/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/netbook-remix-team/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/netbook-remix-team/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/lidaobing/ppa/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/lidaobing/ppa/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/asac/ppa/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/asac/ppa/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/globalmenu-team/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/globalmenu-team/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/themuso/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/themuso/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/zulcss/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/zulcss/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/q-funk/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/q-funk/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/ted-gould/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/ted-gould/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/hyperair/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/hyperair/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/bigon/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/bigon/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/gnomefreak/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/gnomefreak/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/marceloshima/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/marceloshima/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/freenx-team/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/freenx-team/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/bhavi/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/bhavi/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/scott/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/scott/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/intuitivenipple/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/intuitivenipple/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/suraia/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/suraia/ubuntu karmic main

deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/gwibber-daily/ppa/ubuntu karmic main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/gwibber-daily/ppa/ubuntu karmic main

Now we can update the image by running:

# apt-get update
# apt-get dist-upgrade

3.3. Installing new packages

Let install all multimedia packages that we might need. As per http://www.debuntu.org/how-to-play-dvd-under-ubuntu-linux, we need to install:

# apt-get install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-multiverse vlc mplayer mplayer-fonts
# /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/install-css.sh

Then, let install RealPlayer:

# wget http://www.debian-multimedia.org/pool/main/r/realplay/realplayer_10.0.9-0.1_i386.deb -O /tmp/realplay.deb
# dpkg -i /tmp/realplay.deb

Now, let’s install some utils that are not included by default on Ubuntu live cd but become handy most of the time:

# apt-get install rar unrar unace-nonfree

Plus, let’s install some wireless network utils so we might be able to get wireless functionning with the live CD:

# apt-get install ndiswrapper-common ndiswrapper-utils-1.9 cabextract unshield \
bcm43xx-fwcutter \
kismet aircrack-ng

Let’s add some other network network utility tools:

# apt-get install wireshark nmap ettercap traceroute

Also, we are going to add some firefox plugins:

# apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree mozilla-plugin-vlc

On the top of this, I want to be able to use skype and vmware-server:

# apt-get install libqt4-core libqt4-gui
# wget http://skype.com/go/getskype-linux-ubuntu -O /tmp/skype.deb
# dpkg -i /tmp/skype.deb
# apt-get install vmware-server

Well, that’s about it, we now have whatever software that we (I) will need when using our live CD.
It is now about time to do some clean up.

4. Cleaning up the chroot

When we install packages, apt caches the packages, we will need to remove them in order to save some space:

# apt-get clean

Also, there is some files in /tmp that need to be removed:

# rm -rf /tmp/*

Before chrooting, we have added 2 files: /etc/hosts and /etc/resolv.conf, let remove them:

# rm -f /etc/hosts /etc/resolv.conf

Finally, we are ready to exit the chroot and repack the CD. We need first to umount /proc and /sys:

# umount /proc/
# umount /sys/
# exit

Finally, we are back to our host, as we have modified some packages, we need to rebuild some manifest files, recreate the squashfs and recreate the ISO.

5. Recreating the ISO

Fisrt, lets recreate the manifest files:

$ chmod +w ~/livecd/cd/casper/filesystem.manifest
$ sudo chroot ~/livecd/custom dpkg-query -W –showformat=’${Package} ${Version}\n’ > ~/livecd/cd/casper/filesystem.manifest
sudo cp ~/livecd/cd/casper/filesystem.manifest ~/livecd/cd/casper/filesystem.manifest-desktop

And regenerate the squashfs file:

$ sudo mksquashfs ~/livecd/custom ~/livecd/cd/casper/filesystem.squashfs
Parallel mksquashfs: Using 2 processors
Creating little endian 3.0 filesystem on ~/livecd/cd/casper/filesystem.squashfs, block size 65536.
….
….

Now, alternatively, you might want to customize the file: ~/livecd/cd/README.diskdefines
and finally, update ~/livecd/cd/md5sum.txt which contains the files in ~/livecd/cd md5 sums:

$ sudo rm ~/livecd/cd/md5sum.txt
$ sudo -s
# (cd ~/livecd/cd && find . -type f -print0 | xargs -0 md5sum > md5sum.txt)

We are now almost done, the last thing left is too create the ISO with the following command:

$ cd ~/livecd/cd
$ sudo mkisofs -r -V “Ubuntu-Live-Custom” -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat -cache-inodes -J -l -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -o ~/Desktop/Ubuntu-Live-7.10-custom.iso .

Here you go, you can now test your image by either booting your computer with or by using a virtualization/emulation software such as qemu, kvm, vmware…..

6. Conclusion

With a bit of work, one can customize an Ubuntu Live CD in order to remove/include some softwares, make sure the live CD is up-to-date, and on the top of this, allow administrator to deploy pre-customized Ubuntu distros.

The common mitake i found was in

sudo mkisofs -r -V “Ubuntu-Live-Custom” -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat -cache-inodes -J -l -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -o ~/Desktop/Ubuntu-Live-7.10-custom.iso . <===

the . <== represents current drectory

it will show an error genisoimage

add a space and . at the end


Burning CD in Solaris


Burning CD/DVD in solaris

It is little painful to burn a CD/DVD in Solaris.
I don’t know too many applications which can be used to burn DVDs in solaris environment
Even if it is available I am not sure how user friendly it will be

But I discovered that we can burn CD/DVDs easily with few commands
It works and found it little faster than burning DVDs on any application in Windows

Here is what I did

1) Copy all the files you want to burn in a directory
In this case I have moved the files to directory video

2) Make an iso image out of it.
bash-3.00#mkisofs -J -R -o /export/test.iso ./video

3) Test if the iso image works fine by mounting it
bash-3.00# lofiadm -a /export/test.iso
/dev/lofi/1
bash-3.00# mount -F hsfs /dev/lofi/1 /mnt
bash-3.00# cd /mnt

4) Now insert the media in the drive and burn the cd/dvd.
bash-3.00# cdrw -i /export/test.iso
Looking for CD devices…
Initializing device…done.
Preparing to write DVD
Writing track 1…done.
Finalizing (Can take several minutes)…done.
bash-3.00#